As previously announced, tonight there will be the first BoD formal meeting. It will be a public one, so you are interested, you are welcome to follow the discussion in real time. Keep in mind, however, that in order to ensure an efficient workflow, you will be able to read the discussion in real time, but not actively participate to it (unless you are asked to).
Link to the chat: http://webchat.freenode.net/?channels=BoDpublic
Vologda (Russian: Вологда, [ˈvoləɡdə]) is a city and the administrative, cultural, and scientific center of Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the Vologda River. Population: 301,755 (2010 Census); 293,046 (2002 Census);282,802 (1989 Census).
The city serves as a major transport hub of the Northwest of Russia. Vologda has been classified by the Ministry of Culture of Russian Federation as a historical city, one of the forty-one in Russia and one of only three in Vologda Oblast. 224 buildings in Vologda have been officially recognized as cultural heritage monuments
Two conflicting theories exist as to the date of Vologda's foundation.
The year 1147 is the official date first fixed in 1780 by Alexey Zasetsky in his book "Stories about miracles ofGerasimus of Vologda". The story mentions that in 1147 the Trinity Monastery was founded close to the Vologda River. The date of the foundation of the monastery is then taken as the date of the foundation of the city of Vologda and is mentioned in official city documents. This date, which would make Vologda to be of the same age asMoscow, is, however, not supported by any scientific data and is considered by authoritative sources to be fictional. The story was only written in 1666 by a certain Foma, who got a request from Archbishop Markel to produce the vita of Gerasimus. Foma himself admitted that he had no sufficient data on the biography. The story contains many contradicting details. Besides, the monastic life in the Russian north was not known in the 12th century: the first monastery in Vladimir was founded in 1152, in Rostov in 1212, in the Belozersk area in 1251. Archeological excavations do not confirm this date either. Instead, they demonstrate that the city of Vologda was founded in the 13th century.
The year 1264 was the first mention of Vologda when it was included in the list of possessions of the Novgorod Republic in the agreement between the Republic and the Grand Prince of Russia. This date is also supported by archaeological data.
The nucleus of Vologda in the 13th century was not located in the area which is now the city center, but rather the area known now as "Lazy ground" (Ленивая площадка), close to the Resurrection church. This area was the center of Vologda up to 1565. Until that year, no stone constructions existed in Vologda: all of the city fortifications, bridges, houses, churches, and industrial enterprises were made of wood.
Before the 16th century
The unique position of Vologda on important waterways connecting Moscow, Novgorod, and the White Sea (via theNorthern Dvina) made it attractive for the Novgorod Republic, as well as for the princes of the Tver and the Moscow, who fought numerous wars between the 13th and the 15th centuries.
In 1371, Dmitry Prilutsky, a monk from the Nikolsky Monastery in Pereslavl-Zalessky, founded Nikolsky Monastery, now known as Spaso-Prilutsky Monastery, close to the city. Dmitry Donskoy, the Grand Prince of Moscow, was the chief benefactor of the monastery and viewed it as a stronghold of the influence of the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the Northern lands in competition with Novgorod.
In 1397, during the reign of Vasily I, Vologda was added to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Subsequently, the city was several times attacked by Novgorod forces. During the Muscovite Civil War, Vologda played a key role. After Vasily II the Blind, the Grand Prince of Moscow, was defeated by Dmitry Shemyaka in 1447, he swore to never start a war against Shemyaka, was exiled to Vologda, and got the city as a personal possession. From there Vasily traveled to the Kirillo-Belozersky Monastery where the hegumen released him from the oath. The civil war continued, and in 1450, Vologda was besieged by the troops of Dmitry Shemyaka; however, they did not manage to occupy the town.
After the death of Vasily in 1462, Vologda passed to the possession of his son Andrey Menshoy and became the center of the Principality of Vologda. In 1481, after the death of Andrey who had no successors, Vologda passed to Ivan III, the Grand Duke of Moscow, and was included to the Grand Duchy of Moscow.
Times of Ivan the Terrible
During the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, Vologda became one of the major transit centers of Russia's trade. The foreign trade was conducted mostly with England, Holland, and other western countries via the White Sea. Arkhangelsk was the major foreign trade haven, and Vologda stood on the waterway connecting Moscow with Arkhangelsk. The trade with Siberia was conducted via the Sukhona and the Vychegda Rivers, and Vologda also played an important role as a transit center. The state courtyard was built in the city on the bank of the Vologda River. In 1553, Vologda was visited by the English seafarer Richard Chancellor who officially established diplomatic relations between the Tsardom of Russia and England. In 1554, trading agent John Gass described Vologda to English merchants as a city with an abundance of bread where the goods were twice as cheap as in Moscow and Novgorod, and that there was no city in Russia that would not trade with Vologda. Following the reports of John Gass, in 1555 England opened a trading office in the city, and the first Russian ambassador sent to England for negotiations became Osip Nepeya, a native of Vologda.
In 1565, Ivan the Terrible introduced the policy of Oprichnina and included Vologda into the structure of Oprichnina lands. That year, he visited the city for the first time and decided to make it the center of Oprichnina and consequently the capital of the country. The Tsar ordered to build a new fortress. It was decided to build it not in the former town center, but rather in another part of the town, limited on the one side by the river, and on the other side by what are now Leningradskaya, Oktyabrskaya, and Mira Streets. The fortress was surrounded by a moat. Ivan the Terrible traveled to Vologda in person to supervise the foundation of the fortress on April 28, 1566, which was the day to celebrate the memory of Saint Jason (Nason in Russian tradition) and Saint Sosipater. Therefore the territory of the fortress located in the new part of Vologda was named the "Nason-gorod" (Nason-town). The other name of the Nason-gorod was the Vologda Kremlin (currently the name is sometimes referred only to the Bishop's courtyard).
Between 1568 and 1570, a new cathedral was built in the new fortress. The Saint Sophia Cathedral became the first stone building in Vologda. The design of the cathedral copied the Dormition Cathedral of the Moscow Kremlin. This was the idea of Ivan the Terrible who wanted to make his new capital similar to Moscow. He personally supervised the construction, headed by the architect Razmysl Petrov. In 1571, Vologda became the center of the Diocese of Vologda and Perm that was formed in 1492 and previously had its main church in the distant settlement of Ust-Vym in Perm lands. Thereby, Vologda was strengthened not only in trading, military and political influence, but also in ecclesiastical affairs.
However, in 1571 Ivan the Terrible unexpectedly stopped the construction work in Vologda and left the city for good. Presumably, this was connected with his decision to abolish Oprichnina, and Vologda was not needed as the second capital any longer. According to the legend, when Ivan visited the Saint Sophia Cathedral, a little stone fell from the roof on his head. The superstitious Tsar who received a serious head injury took it as an sign of misfortune and decided to leave the city. In any case, it is known that the Tsar wanted even to demolish the cathedral, and that the cathedral was never consecrated during his lifetime. The consecration took place only during the reign his son Feodor I in 1587. Parts of the incomplete fortress which were later in the 17th century strengthened with wooden walls stayed up to the 19th century when they were disassembled by the city authorities and local residents and used as a material for stone building.
Time of Troubles
The Time of Troubles for Vologda began with a plague epidemic in 1605. In 1608, when Russia was split into areas controlled by Tsar Vasily Shuysky and area controlled by the pretender False Dmitry II supported by Polish troops, the people of Vologda made an oath to False Dmitry. By gaining Vologda not only did he get the control over Russian and English trading warehouses, but also opened all the possibilities to conquer the Northern Russia. However, the new administration sent to Vologda caused extreme discontent of the population by abuse and boundless requisitions. As a result, Vologda denounced False Dmitry II and supported Shuysky. Moreover, in February 1609 a national home guard headed by Nikita Vysheslavtsev was formed in Vologda and went to fight against False Dmitry II.
In 1612, people of Vologda rendered sizable food and military help to the home guard organized by Kuzma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky, which eventually defeated Polish troops. However, after the city sent huge military forces to support the second home guard, it remained without sufficient protection, and on September 22, 1612 one of the Lithuanian extortionate groups seized Vologda without effort. Then the city was burned down, and many inhabitants were killed or taken prisoner.
After 1613, Vologda quickly recovered due to its convenient location and once again became an important center of foreign trade. During the reign of Peter the Great, Vologda became one of the main military bases of Russia. Military and technical equipment for fortresses and military ships under construction was stored there. Vessels which delivered food supplies toArkhangelsk were constructed in Vologda. Peter intended to hold them on Lake Kubenskoye, 30 kilometers (19 mi) north of Vologda. However, after personally inspecting the lake in 1692, he abandoned the idea deciding that the lake is improper for that purpose.
Peter the Great visited Vologda on no less than ten occasions, on six of which (in 1692, 1693, 1694, 1702, 1722, and 1724) he stayed in the city for extended time. He always stayed in a small house of the Dutch merchant Goutman, which in 1872 was bought by the city authorities, and in 1885 was transformed into the memorial museum of Peter the Great and became the first museum of Vologda.
However, after St. Petersburg was founded and foreign trade was rerouted to the Baltic Sea, the importance of Vologda as a center of foreign trade decayed. In 1722, Peter issued the decree restricting trade through Arkhangelsk, which damaged Vologda even further. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708, Vologda lost its functions as an administrative center and was included as a town of Archangelgorod Governorate.
The revival began only during the reign of Catherine the Great who in 1780 made Vologda the center of Vologda Viceroyalty, a successor of Archangelgorod Governorate. In 1796, the viceroyalty, administered by a governor-general, was transformed into Vologda Governorate, the borders of which stretched up to the Ural mountains in the east. The center of Vologda was rebuilt according to the plan of a provincial city issued in 1781. The street network is still in use now.
A new economic lifting of the city was connected with a steamship movement across the Sukhona River and with the building of a new railroad line connecting Vologda with Yaroslavl and Moscow (1872), with Arkhangelsk (1898), with St. Petersburg and Vyatka (1905).
In 1871, the Danish merchant Friedrich Buman opened a specialized butter factory in the manor of Fominskoye, 13 kilometers (8.1 mi) from Vologda. It was the first butter factory both in Vologda Governorate and in Russia. Since then Vologda became the center of the butter industry, and the Vologda butter, a special type of butter with the taste of nuts invented by Nikolay Vereschagin and Buman, became a world trademark. In 1911, the manor of Fominskoye together with the Buman's creamery was given to the state and became the base for the Vologda dairy institute. Thereby Vologda turned to one of the largest dairy centers of Russia.
Since the 15th century, Vologda was a political exile destination and was even known as "Siberia close to the capital". In the 19th–20th centuries, such persons asJoseph Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov (later the Minister of Foreign Affairs), Nikolai Berdyaev (the famous Russian philosopher), Boris Savinkov (later known as a successful terrorist), Mariya Ulyanova, and Alexander Bogdanov were sent to Vologda. Anatoly Lunacharsky chose to go there to join Bogdanov, and to marry Anna Alexandrovna Malinovskaya, Bogdanov's sister.
Soviet power was established in Vologda in December 1917, and up to the summer of 1918 co-existed with the zemstvo and municipal administration. In February 1918, Vologda became the "diplomatic capital of Russia" for several months. Embassies located in Saint Petersburg were threatened by the German army, so Western powers, led by American Ambassador David R. Francis, relocated them to Vologda. However, pressured by the Bolsheviks, on July 24, 1918 the diplomats were compelled to leave Vologda and repatriate via Arkhangelsk.
During the Russian Civil War, Vologda was the location of the headquarters of the 6th Red Army. The army opposed the White Army under command of Evgeny Miller and the military forces of Entente in northern Russia.
In 1929, the Vologda Governorate was abolished and included into the structure of a new formation, Northern Krai, which also included former Arkhangelsk andNorthern Dvina Governorates, as well as the Komi-Zyryan Autonomous Oblast. The administrative center of Northern Krai was located in Arkhangelsk. In December 1936, Northern Krai was abolished and divided into the Komi ASSR and Northern Oblast, with the administrative center still located in Arkhangelsk. On September 23, 1937, Northern Oblast was divided into Arkhangelsk Oblast and Vologda Oblast by the decision of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union. According to the same decision, districts of former Cherepovets Okrug of Leningrad Oblast were attached to Vologda Oblast. These districts currently make for the western part of Vologda Oblast. Thereby the current borders of Vologda Oblast were determined.
In the 1930s, a flax factory, a coach-repair factory, and a sawmill, "Northern Communard," were constructed.
During World War II, martial law was declared in Vologda, and its industrial enterprises shifted to military production. In the fall of 1941, Finnish troops crossed the borders of Vologda Oblast, and Vologda thus became a front city. The inhabitants were mobilized to dig trenches. In the city, bomb-proof shelters and elementary shelters were under construction, systems of air defense which protected the railway junction and the military-industrial enterprises were developed. As a result, though attempts of bombardments were numerous, no bombs fell on the city. To commemorate these events, a monument to the air defense forces was later erected on Zosimovskaya Street in Vologda. The monument has the shape of an anti-aircraft gun. In addition, Vologda was a railway hub used to supply the army and to evacuate equipment. It also served as a large hospital center. Residents of Vologda donated blood, money, and jewellery. The tank detachment "Vologda Collective Farmer" was funded by these donations. To commemorate these events the monument to the tank T-34 was built on Mira Street.
Between 1961 and 1985, Anatoly Drygin was the first secretary of the CPSU Vologda Oblast Committee and the head of the oblast. During this period, notable changes in many aspects of economy both of the city and of the oblast occurred. In particular, a bearing plant, a mechanical plant, and an optical-mechanical factory were built in Vologda. A polytechnical university was opened. A large-scale poultry farm was established. A major construction initiative was carried out, and, in particular, the first buildings higher than five floors were constructed. The city expanded, with new residential areas built; in particular, Byvalovo, GPZ, the 5th and the 6th Microdistricts. In 1976, the Vologda trolleybus system opened.
In November 1991, the city administration was formed and the reform of local governments began. In October 1993, the Soviets of People's Deputies of all levels were abolished. After the dissolution of the Vologda Soviet, the City Duma was established. The first Duma elections took place on March 20, 1994. This first Duma only had six seats, but in 1995, after the next elections, it was expanded to thirty deputies.
On July 25, 1996, the City Duma adopted the main city document: the Charter of Vologda. On October 6, 1996, the first mayoral elections in the history of Vologda took place. Alexey Yakunichev was elected and became the head of the city. His term ended in 2008.
In 2003, the construction of a ring road started. Before that, the М8 highway connecting Moscow and Arkhangelsk run through the city center causing congestion. After the completion, the ring road connects the highways А114 (Vologda – Novaya Ladoga), Р5 (Vologda – Medvezhyegorsk), and М8 (Moscow – Arkhangelsk). On August 25, 2005, the City Duma approved the new Charter of Vologda. Even though the deputies introduced more than four hundred amendments and the document increased more than twice in volume as compared with the Charter of 1996, the changes were relatively minor. On October 12, 2008, Yevgeny Shulepovwas elected to be the new City Head.
In Vologda, there are ten museums, four showrooms of the Vologda Regional Art Gallery, and the gallery "Red bridge". The largest cultural center of the Russian North is the Vologda State Museum Reserve. Its structure now includes the following museums,
- Vologda Kremlin (Bishop's courtyard)
- Peter the Great's house museum (Peter's house) – the first museum of Vologda (opened in 1885)
- Expocenter "Vologda at a boundary of centuries"
- Museum "World of the forgotten things"
- K.N.Batyushkov's apartment museum
- Museum "Literature. Art. 20th century"
- Alexander Mozhaysky's house museum
- Museum "Vologda exile"
- Museum of Architecture and Ethnography (Semyonkovo)
Additionally, Vologda is home to a unique Russian private museum of political history—the Museum of Diplomatic Corps which highlights the short stay of diplomatic corps in Vologda in 1918.
- Drama theater
- Theater for children and youth
- Puppet theater "Teremok"
- Chamber theater
- Philharmonic society of Valery Gavrilin
- Children's musical theater
The following annual theater festivals are held in Vologda:
- "Voices of History" (the beginning of July, every year)
- Valery Gavrilin international music festival (every year, from October till December)
- «Summer in the Kremlin» (every even year, from June till July)
- The annual open international festival of multimedia art "Multimatograf"
Among annual exhibitions which take place in Vologda are the following:
- "Russian Flax"
- "Russian Wood"
- "Gates of the North"
- "Your Home"
Many notable Russian writers and poets were born or worked in Vologda. The best known of them were Konstantin Batyushkov, Nikolay Rubtsov, and Vasily Belovand Vladimir Gilarovsky. Contemporary literature of Vologda is represented by a number of authors which include Nata Suchkova, Maria Markova, Galina Schekina, and Anton Chorny.
Institutions of higher education
- Vologda State Technical University
- Vologda State Pedagogical University
- N.V. Vereschagin Vologda State Dairy Academy
- Vologda Institute of Law and Economy of the Federal Penal Service
- Vologda Institute of Business
- Vologda branch of the Moscow State Law Academy
- Vologda branch of the Northwestern Academy of Public Service
- Vologda branch of the Saint Petersburg State University of Engineering and Economics
- Vologda branch of the International Academy of Business and New Technologies
Vologda is a major transportation hub, located at the intersection of highways, railways, and waterways.
The public transport network is well developed in the city: There are both bus and trolleybus lines. The city has four big automobile bridges: two automobile bridges across the Vologda River and two bridges across railways. There is one pedestrian bridge (the Red bridge) in the city center.
Vologda is the largest sorting and transit spot of the Northern Railway. It includes the stations Vologda-1, Vologda-2, Rybkino, and Losta. The stretch between Vologda-2 and Losta is the most active one in the railroad network of the Russian Federation, with more than 120–150 pairs of trains running through it daily. Suburban trains and long distance trains originate from the railway station of Vologda-1.
The Vologda Airport is situated 10 km from the city centre along the Arkhangelsk highway. Yak-40 aircraft carry out regular passenger flights to Moscow, Ukhta,Velikiy Ustyug, Kichmengsky Gorodok, and Vytegra. Helicopters Mi-2 and Mi-8 are used by the Vologda aviation company. They are used for the emergency aircraft and for the oil pipeline service .
The following highways go through Vologda:
- Federal highway М8 (Moscow — Yaroslavl — Vologda — Arkhangelsk — Severodvinsk). The entrance to Vologda from the Moscow side (south) is Okruzhnoe shosse and Koneva street, from the Arkhangelsk side (north) – Chernyshevskaya street.
- Road А-114 (Vologda — Cherepovets — Novaya Ladoga). The entrance to Vologda is Leningradskoe shosse and Okruzhnoe shosse.
- Line Р-5 (Vologda — Kirillov — Vytegra — Pudozh — Medvezhyegorsk). The entrance to Vologda is Alexander Klubov street.
- Roads of local importance lead to
- Mozhaiskоye and Norobovo,
- Fetinino (through Semyonkovo)
- Gryazovets and Rostilovo (old Moscow highway).
The new ring road with modern exits connecting roads A-114, Р-5 and М-8 (the Arkhangelsk destination) is under construction around Vologda. The Arkhangelsk direction is still not connected by the ring road.
His profile in Couschsurfing: http://www.couchsurfing.org/people/alexkharlap/
Vietnam offers pristine beaches, enchanting natural beauty, lovely cities, amazing variety in sea food and a vibrant night life. This coupled with the existence of a quaint, sylvan and breathtakingly beautiful countryside that still has an air of old world charm about it continues to attract millions from across the world.
Plenty of tourists opt to see Vietnam on the local favorite two-wheelers. No, not the scooters, but their healthier cousins -- the bicycles.
A cycling expedition is the best option to explore a country which is famed for hospitality, and Vietnam has the friendliest and most open people you can ever hope to come across. The country is extremely welcoming to visitors with hassle-free procedures and policies. Everything from procuring a Vietnam Visa on Arrival to backpacking through the countryside is a breeze.
A cycling tour of Vietnam can be amazing for your senses and will leave behind wonderful memories. National Geographic has voted the route from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City among the 10 Best Cycling routes in the world. The 746-mile route between the country’s two biggest cities is stunning, captivating, and varied. There are also several other routes for you to try.
Following are a few suggestions for you to keep in mind to make the most of your cycling tours in Vietnam.
Most of us prefer to pack in our best and most expensive gear when we travel. But this may not be a very good idea unless you are sure you will find time to gently wash your Lycra clothes yourself. Keep in mind to include cheap t-shirts and cycling shorts which you can laundry at local stores. They are generally given a thorough and stone-scrubbed wash, so don’t think your costly bits of clothing will withstand the onslaught.
Pool Your Funds
It will be better if all the financial transactions are done by one person in your group. That will get things done fairly quickly and easily and also spares you the trouble of splitting bills en route. All of you should contribute towards the fund. It is also better if the same person, if he is up for it, is entrusted with the responsibility of deciding where the group stays and dines as well as which roads to take. This is a far more efficient arrangement than ten people debating on all of the above.
Knowledge of Local Language
Most people in Vietnamese cities know English. But you are going to travel through delightful rural hamlets and lush paddy fields where English is quite foreign. It would be helpful to have someone with a working knowledge of Vietnamese to help you get around more quickly.
Hire a Van to Tow Your Luggage
Your tour is going to span a week or two and is going to take you across mountains and valleys, a long coastline, local villages, and orchards. So arrange for a van or a pickup truck to lug your stuff around. The driver can also double up as a guide along the way.
Get Sound Sleep
You should plan your stops properly and rest adequately. There are fabulous vacation rentals in Vietnam which help you experience the local culture and hospitality. Check with your tour operator or travel agent in advance. Homestays are also a good option. They will add a unique and personal touch to your experience.
Get Your Bikes Expedition-ready
If you plan to fly your bike in along with you, make sure you arrange for a fresh set of tires, a puncture repair kit, and a few tubes as well. Don’t forget to carry a spare tire or two along with you because the terrain can get quite rough. If like most tourists you are planning to purchase one from a local dealer, make sure you buy from a reliable place, bargain well, and not get ripped off. Also make your purchase a few days prior to your tour so that you get a feel of it. If you find it uncomfortable, get it replaced or repaired by the dealer.
Some essentials you need to carry:
Tested gears: You should have good gears which go all the way up as well as all the way down again, and are smooth and quick. You should also ideally have adjustable seats and a comfortable sitting posture.
GPS system: This will help you if you get lost. Google maps can prove to be life savers. It will also come in handy to explore the less familiar places.
Helmets, horns, and locks: Loud honking is incessant on Vietnamese streets. Helmets are an essential feature because most of the time you will be cycling alongside trucks, cars, and scooters. Mishaps are rare but you are better off being cautious. You are going to have stopovers at unfamiliar places and definitely wouldn’t like to play detective trying to find your lost bike the next morning. Locks prevent your precious set of wheels from getting flicked.
Proper gear: Padded shorts can make the bumps easy on you and grip tapes and gloves will make your ride comfortable.
The essential knick-knacks: The sun can be harsh so carry your sunscreen and slather it on generously. Don’t leave behind your mobile phone and charger, and of course, your other communication gadgets you can’t live without. Free Wi-Fi is available practically all over Vietnam so you can post your selfies and tweet about your adventure 24*7. Also carry ear plugs; they help you sleep soundly, particularly if your companions snore or are insomniacs.
A first aid kit: A good quality first aid kit is mandatory. Stack up on saline, gauze, and disinfectants. You should also have emergency medication available with you. Check with a doctor to ensure you don’t miss any. Also carry along energy foods like supplementary drinks, energy bars, electrolyte tablets and everybody’s favorite (easily available as well) bananas. Travel insurance is also a must-have; it helps during emergencies.
Vietnam, or Saigon as it is locally known, is a young country, with warm people. A cycling tour can help you savor the ever-changing landscape of sleepy highlands, palm-fringed beaches, and charming roads that lead through mango and coconut groves. This holiday will be a life-changing experience that may keep bringing you back for more!
Добрый день всем, кто заглянул на огонек. Я не очень опытный путешественник, тем не менее могу и хочу поделиться своим опытом. Я открыла свой блог, где пишу истории о странах и местах. в которых я побывала. Приглашаю на мой сайт http://travelenka.com/
Буду рада ответить на все интересующие вопросы.